Final Arbitral Award: July 12, 2016

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Nine-dashed Line Map Submitted by China to United Nations on 7 May 2009 China did not explain the legal basis for the dashes. The dashes had no fixed coordinates. “China has indisputable sovereignty over the islands in the South China Sea and the adjacent waters, and enjoys sovereign rights and jurisdiction over the relevant waters as well as the seabed and subsoil thereof.” – China’s Note Verbale of 7 May 2009 The Vietnam, Malaysia and Indonesia promptly protested China’s claim under this dashed lines map. The Philippines belatedly protested on 11 April 2011.


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