China’s 5 Constitutions refute Beijing sea claim


This resumes Wednesday’s piece, “China’s Own Ancient Maps Disprove Beijing Sea Claim.” The article detailed 15 maps of China, 1136-1933, by Chinese officials and citizens. Their common feature: Hainan Island (ancient names Zhuya, Qiongya, Qiongzhou) always has been China’s southernmost territory. Supreme Court Senior Justice Antonio T. Carpio dug up the maps. They belie Beijing’s “historical facts” in claiming islets, reefs, shoals, and waters of the South China (West Philippine) Sea.

Three more ancient maps of China, this time by foreigners, prove too that Hainan always has been China’s southernmost territory:

(1) “Carte Exacte de Toutes les Provinces, Villes, Bourgs, Villages et Rivieres du Vaste et Puissant Empire de la Chine” or “Accurate Map of All the Provinces, Cities, Towns, Villages and Rivers of the Vast and Powerful Chinese Empire.” Published in Lieden, Netherlands, around 1700, the map was made by Johannes Nieuhof, who died 1672.

(2) “Carte la plus Generale et qui Comprehend la Chine, la Tartarie Chinoise, et le Thibet” or “General Map that Includes China, Chinese Tartary and Tibet.” The map states Jean Baptiste Bourguignon D’Anville as maker in Paris, 1734. A Royal Cartographer of France, he had access to works of mapmakers in China through his pal, French Jesuit and China specialist Du Halde. As annotated, the map came from Jesuit surveys in 1708-1716 on instructions of the Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi.


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